Lorna Kaufman

About Lorna Kaufman

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Free Reading Tests For Your Child

Spring is often a time in the school year when parents question whether or not their child is actually reading at grade level. The Kaufman Parent ScreeningTests help parents answer this question. These tests are now available free of charge at SmartKidCantRead.com.

It is important that as a parent you act as soon as you suspect that your child is having difficulty reading.  Children don’t just “outgrow” reading problems. Once children enter the fourth grade it is much more difficult to help them catch up with their peers.

Parents are sometimes confused about whether their child is reading at grade level and don’t know when they should act.  The teacher may advise you not to worry, but you see your child struggling.  For parents who face this dilemma, a series of informal screening tests that parents can administer to their own children is available at SmartKidCantRead.com.   These informal tests are easy and quick to administer and will give you a general idea of whether your concerns are justified. 

The screening tests come with easy instructions as well as videos that demonstrate how to administer each test. You will find the videos free of charge on the website (Smartkidcantread.com/videos/). There are tests available for kindergarten, grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3. There are instructions and videos for how to determine whether children in grades 4-12 are reading at grade level.

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In 1996 the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) formed a committee of distinguished experts in the field of reading to investigate strategies for preventing reading problems.  Their report provides parents and teachers with valuable information that remains relevant today. It outlines reading goals that a student should meet from kindergarten through grade three as they are learning to read.

You will find a summary of the NAS guidelines at www.smartkidcantread.com/resources/free-downloads/. These are the reading skills that a student should possess at the end of that school year.  These guidelines will help you determine whether your child is on target for his grade level.

If you find that your child has trouble with the Kaufman Parent Screening Test or is not meeting NAS grade level expectations, it is time to seek a professional evaluation.

By |April 30th, 2019|Dyslexia, Resources|0 Comments

IEP Tips for Parents

Children who receive special education services do so under the auspices of an Individual Education Program (IEP). An IEP is a document that outlines the services your child will receive. An IEP team includes teachers relevant to your child’s services and specified special education personnel.  As a parent you are automatically a member of your child’s team. You are not only a valuable team member but decision-making power regarding your child’s education ultimately rests with you.

It is important to understand how to manage team meetings because that is where decisions are made. It’s easy to be intimidated in a meeting when sitting at a table surrounded by many professionals.  There are “rules of the road” that can improve your ability to advocate for your child.

Remember, when you negotiate with the school on your child’s behalf, you increase the odds that he will receive an appropriate education.

  1. Never go to a team meeting alone.  I always advise both parents to attend team meetings.  This is true whether or not you are currently married. If your child’s other parent is unable to accompany you to the meeting, find someone to go with you, preferably someone who is a good note taker. If possible, select someone who knows the field of education. At the very least, bring someone who exudes confidence. Bring an advocate to a meeting if you anticipate a disagreement over the help your child needs.  Bring your independent evaluator to the meeting to explain your child’s evaluation results when that evaluation is completed.
  1. Be prepared for the meeting. Most team chairpersons work from an agenda. Ask for an advance copy of that agenda and make sure the items you want to discuss are included. You want to know who will be in attendance and what part each person will play. Remember, you are an equal participant in your child’s team.  Make certain you have all the documents you will need. If the school has completed an evaluation of your child it is important to obtain copies before the meeting. Study those reports and come prepared with a written list of questions.
  1. Know what you want. Before entering the meeting, decide what actions you want team members to take. If your evaluator or advocate will be attending with you, confer with them prior to the meeting. Be clear on your goals. What is your bottom line? What is negotiable? What are you unwilling to relinquish? For example, does your child need daily instruction in a pull-out setting with 1:1 help in reading? Is there a particular type of instruction that will benefit him? To make these decisions you must be informed about your child’s needs. That information will come from your independent evaluation. Some advocates recommend that parents prepare a written Statement of Concerns and a Request for Services that list each area of difficulty along with the services their child needs. Bring a copy for each team member and make sure your requests for services receive a formal response.
  1. Take the time to make an informed decision. Make certain you have the information you need to make the best, most informed, decision for your child. You do not need to make decisions at the meeting. For example, if your school recommends placement in a self- contained  special needs classroom, make sure that either you or your representative observe the classroom to determine whether it is an appropriate placement for your child. Remember, you can accept all or parts of the IEP. If there are particular areas you believe do not meet the needs of your child, you can reject those portions of the IEP.
  1. Be respectful. While it is important to be an advocate for your child, be careful not to come across as militant. Be prepared for the meeting and present yourself as composed, confident, and friendly. Be willing to listen as well as advocate your points.

    Actively look for ways to validate the positive things happening in your child’s classroom. Be sensitive to honest efforts on the part of team members. In nearly all cases, teachers are doing the best they can.

    Leave your strong emotions at home. A team meeting is not the place to break down in tears or engage in a yelling match. Stay focused on the present and the decisions that need to be made now. Don’t indulge in historical recriminations. What is past may well have contributed to your current dilemma, but it does no good to indulge in anger over it. Move forward.

  1. Become an informed parent. With a clear understanding of your child and his educational needs, you will have the knowledge needed to advocate for those needs. Study the federal law and your state’s special education regulations. As you reveal your depth of understanding of your child, the nature of his educational needs, and the law, you will position yourself as a valuable member of the team. Stay focused on finding solutions for your child. Armed with an arsenal of accurate information, expect to be treated as a worthwhile contributor at the table.

Lorna N. Kaufman, PhD

You can find more information on this topic in “Smart Kid, Can’t Read” available on Amazon.

By |May 20th, 2017|Dyslexia|0 Comments

The Evaluation of Decoding


Most children who struggle with reading have difficulty with decoding. Problems with reading fluency and reading comprehension are often related to problems with decoding.

The assessment of decoding skills is a major component of a reading evaluation. To get insight into why a child is having trouble with reading it is important to evaluate a child’s decoding skills in several distinct ways and then compare results.

  • Reading Word Lists: Word lists generally begin with easy words and the words become increasingly more difficult. When we ask children to read lists of words, we eliminate the context. Many bright children with well-developed verbal reasoning skills use context to guess at words. Some are fairly successful at this until they reach a level where words become too difficult to predict based on context.

When working with a child on the word lists, it is important to write down each incorrect response to arrive at an error analysis that reveals patterns of errors.  For example, some children have difficulty with words of more than two syllables (MEM-O-RY; THER-MOM-E-TER), some struggle with words that contain vowel combinations (REMAIN, VOUCHER), others have difficulty with certain endings such as –tion. Many children guess at words based on the initial letter and general word configuration.  For example they may read devise as “devour” or remove as “remark”.

  • Passage Reading: Once again, passages increase in difficulty from easy to difficult. Some children are more successful when reading passages than when reading word lists.  Others find it more difficult to read passages because they become confused as the passages increase in length and linguistic complexity. Some children need context while others become overwhelmed with too many words on a page. Once again, it is essential to analyze errors to look for patterns.  It is particularly important to compare a child’s performance when reading word lists with their performance when reading passages. This comparison can provide important insights.
  • Lists of Nonsense Words: Nonsense words are not real words; they are non-words that follow familiar phonetic patterns.  By asking children to read nonsense words we eliminate the possibility that they may be relying on memorization of frequently used words. This task requires them to use their decoding skills to attack these “words.”
  • Curriculum Based Instruction: This is a particularly helpful part of the evaluation for children in grades 4-12. Ask the student to read one to two pages from the social studies or science textbook that is used in the class.  If the teacher does not use a textbook – use one of the class hand-outs. Make a copy of the pages for you to mark as the child reads so that you can calculate the error and the fluency rates.  You will find grade level tables on our website, Smartkidcantread.com. Look for “Free Downloads”.

Be careful about using composite scores that combine the scores of individual tests.  They can be misleading and may mask the true nature of a child’s reading problem.  This topic will be the subject of a future blog.

Lorna Kaufman, PhD

By |November 29th, 2016|Dyslexia|0 Comments

Testing Your Child at Home

Many of you have asked about the tests that I referred to in the last blog.  These informal screening tests are valuable resources for parents. Parents are often confused about whether their child needs help with reading. The teacher says he’s fine and not to worry; he will “learn when he is ready.” But parents see their children struggling.  If you face this uncertainty, you can administer one of these quick, informal screening tests to your child at home to see if your concerns are justified.  These informal screenings will help you determine whether you need to take the next step and have your child professionally evaluated. I have included the video of the first grade testing.  Other videos are found on the website along with the screening tests.

By |June 1st, 2016|Dyslexia, News|0 Comments